I second the motion. He's leaning on a cane. I have great respect for him. Don't walk so fast; we'll get there on time. Please hurry; we're late already. Tighten this screw. This collar's too tight. He pressed down on the suitcase to close it. He gripped my hand. The runner sprinted on the last lap. There was such a crowd that nobody saw anything. He does everything very quickly. I don't approve of his conduct. Did you pass your math exam?
The boss had to advance him some money. She made use of all the left-overs. Don't let him take advantage of you. Don't go too near the fire. You're aiming too low to hit the target. Jot it down in your notebook. They drained their glasses. The situation worries me very much. Don't worry. Hurry up, child! Hurry up! I bought that scarf we looked at yesterday. I like this book better than that one. He isn't here. I'll wait for you in here. From now on we'll have to spend less money.
Come this way. Wet firewood doesn't burn well. I was burned up by what he said. His arguments don't convince me. I didn't like the plot of the movie. They armed the people. The machine has to be assembled. They made a big racket last night. The mules balked halfway there. He armed himself with a pistol. He built up a good business in a short time. He's always making a mess of things. He's always broke at the end of the month. Three pages have been torn out. We saw the car start.
On a sudden impulse I returned to my home town. This car has a self-starter. What a heel! He gets everything because he's a bootlicker. He was dragged along by the current. Be careful, your coat's dragging. They crawled out of the cave. Is everything arranged for the trip? I think they'll fix the radio this afternoon. Tidy up a bit and we'll go to the movies. How can I manage to finish on time? We did it according to your instructions. Do you want to rent your house? I want to rent a room. You'll be sorry for this.
They live two flights up. The bedrooms are upstairs. It's past the square. He looked him up and down. From above one could see the river. The car was going up. Let's go up. The hat was dirty around the top. He doesn't mind risking his life. If we don't take risks we'll never get anything done. Don't put the table so close to the wall. Give me a hand! Don't throw things out the window. That rope has to be coiled.
They were trampled by the crowd. That man ruined them completely. He was ruined by that business. Are you interested in art? Fine arts. He presents his arguments with great skill. Read the article on page two. They sell sporting goods. Let's roast the chestnuts. It's roasting in this room. The balloon went up slowly. He was promoted three times in one year. The bill amounted to pesos. He refused the food with disgust. Those things disgust me.
Don't come near me; you're filthy. He turns up his nose at everything. He fastened the horse's pack with a rope. I assure you everything will be ready on time. He maintains it's true. The baggage is insured. First make sure the information's correct. He took out accident insurance. That's the way it is. You must do it this way. And so they decided to act immediately. I don't say it without reason. I'll let you know as soon as I get there.
Your attendance isn't necessary. I took care of him during his illness. Were you present at the meeting? The wash'll have to be put in the sun to dry. They were taking a sun bath on the beach. He put his head out of the window. It's forbidden to lean out of windows. He amazes everybody by his cleverness. I'm amazed that you say that. He assumed full responsibility. What's the subject of that play? Don't meddle in my affairs. Your screams frightened me. She's frightened by loud noises. If we go this way we'll catch up with 'em. He cut him short by saying no. Lace your shoes up tight.
When I heard that I put two and two together. I've danced so much that I'm dizzy. The announcer called for attention. I'll never forget your kindness. She likes to attract attention. I reprimanded him for his insolence. The clerk waited on them immediately. Please pay attention to what I'm saying. He takes very good care of his guests. I don't know what to depend on. There was an attempt on the life of the president. Su atento seguro servidor. Very truly yours. He guessed the amount of money I had in my pocket.
He didn't succeed in explaining what he wanted. I can't find the keyhole. I've never seen such a scatterbrain. What an attractive woman! She's very pretty but she has no appeal. She's back there with some friends. Don't back up; there's a tree behind you. He looked back. She stayed behind with some friends. This'll delay my trip a long time. I have to set my watch back; it's very fast. My watch loses ten minutes a day. I think we're getting behind in this work. The backwardness of that country's well known. The bullet pierced his arm. I've crossed the Atlantic several times.
A truck stopped crosswise in the middle of the road. He doesn't dare to tell me. What a horrible thing! An automobile ran over him. If you want to do a good job, don't rush through it. We can't tolerate such an outrage. Three pedestrians were victims of an accident. So much noise rattles me. He was stunned and didn't know what to answer. We can still get there on time. Even now it wouldn't be possible. He hasn't come yet. Even if he doesn't come we'll have to begin. Though I wasn't born in the country, I know it very well.
He left the class because he was feeling sick. Is there enough room in the car for everybody? Which is cheaper, the bus or the street car? He couldn't maintain his authority. They reported it to the authorities. The car moved very slowly. We're not making any progress in our work. The floods ruined the crops. He agreed to what they said. He's a very promising young man.
He gets ahead of everybody in his work. He shamed his whole family by his conduct. After he said it, he was ashamed. The mechanic repaired the damage without delay. The shipment was damaged by the rain. We have to notify the police. I'm warning you for the last time. They revived the fire by putting on more wood. Why don't you keep your eyes open?
Step lively; it's very late. Wake up; you're half asleep. I want to help him carry the packages. Don't smoke on an empty stomach. Let's take that chance. He likes games of chance. He chose them at random. This would embarrass anyone. When I told him that he was very much embarrassed. The sugar industry. The enemy suffered many casualties. There was a general fall in prices. He dropped out of the club. For lack of payment they dropped him from the subscription list. Let's go down the stairs slowly. The temperature fell. Bring the suitcase down from my room. Will you help me take the suitcases down from the rack?
They saw us as they were getting off the train. He bent over to tie his shoe. I want a low table. He's shorter than his brother. They were speaking in a low voice. Let's put the basses on the left. The temperature's fallen below zero. The superintendent lives on the ground floor. What's my bank balance this month? Don't rock in the chair; it's going to break. Three shots were heard. He had three bullet wounds in his chest. This bucket leaks. They're giving tickets free. He tried to get her on the phone without success. Can I cash my check in this bank? All the benches are taken.
The skirt had three red bands. He wore a red sash across his chest. That band gives me a headache. A gang of thieves works these parts. Please bathe the children. I'm going to take a bath. It's very pretty and besides it's cheap. They sell things very cheap in this store. There's a sale today in that department store. He eats too much. Don't talk nonsense. What he did was an outrage. I like her an awful lot.
How many times have you made the trip by boat? We need an iron bar. The spectators cheered the players on. See bastar enough! He dicho que te calles. That's enough! I told you to shut up! Do you have enough money? She's a rather pretty woman. There wasn't enough food for all.
The suit's made of very rough material. Please beat the eggs. He defeated his enemy. They haven't unpacked their trunks yet. He doesn't appreciate favors. The profits were very high. He doesn't know the difference between good and evil. He spoke very well. The beer's very cold. He has a great deal of property. He's rich rather than poor. All right or Correct. Pay close attention to what I tell you. Have you bought the tickets? Give me the money in fives and tens. You have to put a screen in front of the door. I wish I'd bought a white dress! There are white people, Indians, and Negroes in this city.
They hit the target. Leave this sheet blank. They hit the mark three times. The soldiers had target practice in the morning. He didn't open his mouth all afternoon. The subway entrance is on the corner. The child's sleeping on his stomach. He was lying on his back on the beach. What an embarrassing situation that was!
What sultry weather we're having! What a shameful action! Blow the horn so that car'll let us pass. I'm out of breath. Give me that iron ball. We bought some tennis balls. There was a crowd of people at the entrance of the theater. She carried a silk purse. I need a paper bag to put it in. I don't know what the quotations are on the exchange today. They used a pump to take out the water.
The bomb destroyed three houses. It struck like a bombshell! Where is there a filling station? Se puso una bomba. He got drunk [ Am ]. Three bulbs have burned out. Thank you for your kindness. Please wait a moment. It's dirt-cheap. He was lying on the bed. Be careful, don't throw away those papers. They've fired him.
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Look how that ball bounces. I want a can of tomatoes. When he heard it he jumped. The theater was jammed. Be careful, it's a fierce bull.
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He got very mad. I don't like this paper; it's too shiny. He gave her a diamond bracelet. Let's drink to your health! He's always joking. I said it as a joke. He takes everything lightly. He's abrupt in his way of speaking. That's a very good car. It was a good opportunity. I'm not feeling very well. Bueno, nos veremos a las cinco. All right, we'll meet at five.
He gave it to me willingly. Good morning. They made a terrible racket. He went out with a bundle of clothes in his hand. He has a swelling on his head. As soon as he saw what he had to do, he ducked out. They were making fun of him. Put these letters in the mail box. He's a perfect gentleman. Here's your bill, sir. She wears her hair loose. Nothing else will fit in the trunk. The piano won't go through that door. There's no doubt that he's English.
That child has a very large head. He was the leader of the movement. You have to use your brains in this work. He plunged into the water head first. Business is in a mess. He never loses his head. Ese proyecto no tiene pies ni cabeza. There's no rhyme or reason to that plan. From end to end.
We can't leave any loose ends. They passed the Cape of Good Hope. He has corporal's stripes.
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They put an end to the conversation. I know the story from beginning to end. They carried out the plan right away. Take this junk out of here. Every day he says something different. Every one paid for his own meal. He asks me for it every time he sees me. A heavy rain fell. He dropped to his knees. The suit's becoming to him. His birthday falls on Sunday.
He was taken sick a few days ago. I didn't realize it until much later. She fell down the stairs. Be careful, don't drop the tray. He was lame after the fall. The opposition of the House caused the fall of the government. He gave her a box. He put a lot of money in the savings bank. They keep their jewelry in the safe.
Look and see how much the cash register rings up. We have to see how much cash we have on hand. I'm going to buy a pack of cigarettes. They've lost the key to the drawer. They received a box of books. She turned him down. They flunked him in geometry. He got a cramp while he was swimming. The dagger penetrated to his heart. I got home drenched.
He pulled his hat down to his eyes. Let's figure out the cost of the trip. Please heat the water. They warmed themselves in the sun. He's had a fever for the past few days. Is this good material? Be careful, the soup's very hot. Why are you so quiet? He kept quiet while we were talking. He kept the truth from us. Shut up! You're talking too much. Se callaron de repente. All of a sudden they stopped talking. What street do you live on?
I had no choice but to throw him out. When his business failed he was left penniless. We're in a blind alley. There was a calm after the storm. He takes his time when he works. These pills will ease the pain. He didn't calm down until much later. I don't like the heat. It's very warm today. I'm warm. Everything he's saying is slander. What size shoe do you wear? I'm going to chock the wheels so the car won't move.
Please make my bed. He's been confined to bed for the past three months. What kind of a camera do you have? They were talking together like old pals. The maid hasn't made up the room yet. Ask the waitress for the menu. I want to reserve a first-class stateroom. He hasn't changed a bit since I saw him. Can you change a ten-peso bill for me? Has there been any change in policy? Do you have any change? What's the rate of exchange on the dollar today? I'll give you this book in exchange for the other one.
He's very fond of walking. You have to move cautiously in this matter. Is the road all right to drive on? I don't know how to go about getting it. They started out the following day. He was in his shirt sleeves. The soldiers will soon return to camp. I didn't hear how many times the clock struck. We lived in the country for many years. She found her first gray hair. She has a lot of gray hair. We passed through the Panama Canal. The boat was approaching the English Channel. They brought us a basket of fruit. There are tennis courts in this park. What's the latest song hit? Light the candle.
Give me a light for my cigarette. They decided to exchange prisoners. I'm tired. This man's very tiresome. It's a very tiring job. She gets tired quickly. He's always harping on the same string. I want to learn that song. The tenor sang very well tonight. I'll have to tell it to him straight from the shoulder.
How much do I owe you? He's a singing teacher. I like folk songs. Stand the book on edge. A lot of sugar cane is grown in Cuba. He carried a cane. They have to fix the water pipe; it's clogged. He bought a double-barreled shotgun. Have you seen the Grand Canyon?
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He wears a Spanish cape. The door needs another coat of paint. Poor people, they're on the downgrade! This tank has a capacity of thirty liters. He's a very capable business man. I'd like to talk to the foreman. It's a room large enough for a library. He's not capable of such a low trick. I've been told that he's a very competent person. The company has a capital of a million dollars. They took a trip to the capital. I've read only the first three chapters. Don't pay any attention to her whims. She has a very pretty face.
I don't understand the words on the face of the coin. He had to face the music. He's a man of very good character. Everything she does shows she has character. You have to put more coal in the stove. They were splitting their sides. He doesn't have enough money to travel. This mule can't carry a heavier load.
It's a cargo ship. They're taking the freight out of the car. They loaded the truck. The battery has to be charged. The cavalry charged the enemy. I'm charging this amount to your bill. He was very affectionate with his parents. My best regards to your family. I usually eat meat once a day. This cold weather gives me goose flesh. Do you want beef or pork? I need a leather briefcase. The correspondence is kept in several files. I like horse races. They live on Third Avenue. He's preparing for a diplomatic career.
He wrote it hurriedly. He sprinted to catch up to them. The highways in this country are excellent. There was a mule cart on the road. We're going home by car. I'm going to mail this letter. He's thoroughly honest. He received a registered letter. Let's play cards a while. She was carrying a large leather bag under her arm. He took his wallet out of his pocket. Will that briefcase hold many books? What time does the mailman come? Will you be at home this afternoon? Are you married or single?
This is the priest who married them. These colors don't match well. He'll be married next Sunday. He married a very young girl. Have you got something to crack these nuts? This orange has a thick rind. It serves as a medium of instruction from kindergarten to grade 3 and as a separate subject Mother Tongue from grades 1 to 3. For the initiated speakers, Chavacano can be intelligible to some Spanish speakers, and while most Spanish words can easily be understood by Chavacano speakers, many would struggle to understand a complete Spanish sentence. The term Chavacano or Chabacano originated from the Spanish word chabacano which literally means "poor taste", "vulgar", "common", "of low quality", or "coarse".
Chavacano has since evolved into a word of its own in different spellings with no negative connotation, but to simply being the name of the language itself. During the Spanish colonial period, what is today called Chavacano was also called by the Spanish-speaking population as the " lenguaje de la calle ", " lenguaje de parian " language of the street , or " lenguaje de cocina " kitchen Spanish to refer to the Chabacano spoken by the people of Manila, particularly in Ermita to distinguish it from the Spanish language spoken by those of the upper class, which consisted of Spaniards and educated Natives.
The varieties of the language are geographically related. Language speakers in Ternate also use the term Bahra to refer to their language and their city. Chavacano varieties usually have their area name attached to the language. In Zamboanga City, most people are using the V in spelling the language as Chavacano. In the three-day Chavacano Orthography Congress held on Nov , , wherein it included the presentation by researchers on Chavacano, mostly results from surveys conducted among selected respondents in the city, the newly organized Chavacano Orthography Council met with the officials of the Department of Education and agreed among others that the language is to be spelled with the V.
There is no definite conclusion on the precise history of how these different varieties of Chavacano developed. Prior to the formation of what is today the Philippines, what existed were a collection of various islands and different ethnolinguistic groups inhabiting them. The Spanish colonisation of the Philippine islands had led to the presence of the Spanish language in the islands. Though Spanish was the language of the government, the various languages originating and found in the islands remained the mother tongue of the various inhabitants.
Instead of using Spanish to spread Christianity, Spanish missionaries preferred to learn the various local languages. With over years of Spanish colonial rule, the Spanish language came to influence the various Philippine languages to varying degrees by way of aspects like new loanwords and expressions. Creole languages such as French-based creoles have formed at various points in time around the world due to colonialism. As a result of contact between speakers of two mutually non-intelligible languages, creole languages have evolved in some cases to facilitate communication. This usually involves taking the vocabulary of another language and grammatical features of the native language.
In contrast to the numerous French-based creole languages, only three creole languages have been found to be Spanish-based or heavily influenced: Papiamento , Palenquero , and Chavacano. However, the kind of vernacular referred to by these terms are imprecise and these terms may refer to a fully fledged creole or to a Spanish-pidgin spoken by Chinese and Filipino merchants.
The manner of formation of this type of speech found in a number of communities around the Philippines remains unclear today. In the work of German linguist Hugo Schuchardt Uber das Malaiospanische der Philippinen , he presents fragments of texts and comments of what he calls "Malayo-Spanish". However, the first to give a general study and investigation of the varieties of Chavacano as a group was by Keith Whinnom in his work The Spanish Contact Vernaculars in the Philippine Islands.
In it, he also postulated his monogenetic theory on the origin of these vernaculars. Linguists are unsettled on how these vernaculars formed and how they connect to one another, if any. There are many theories but the two main theories of the origin of Chavacano are: Whinnom's "monogenetic theory" and a "parallel-development" theory proposed by Frake in According to the Monogentic theory or one-way theory advanced by Whinnom, all varieties of Chavacano result from a single source and that varieties are related to each other.
The parallel development theory or two-way theory as advocated by Frake in , the variants found in Luzon and Mindanao had evolved autonomously from each other. Bombardment and harassment from pirates and raiders of the sultans of Mindanao and Jolo and the determination to spread Christianity further south as Zamboanga was a crucial strategic location of the Philippines forced the Spanish missionary friars to request reinforcements from the colonial government.
The military authorities decided to import labour from Luzon and the Visayas. Thus, the construction workforce eventually consisted of Spanish, Mexican and Peruvian soldiers, masons from Cavite who comprised the majority , sacadas from Cebu and Iloilo, and those from the various local tribes of Zamboanga like the Samals and Subanons. Language differences made it difficult for one ethnic group to communicate with another. To add to this, work instructions were issued in Spanish.
The majority of the workers were unschooled and therefore did not understand Spanish but needed to communicate with each other and the Spaniards. When the Sultanate of Sulu gave up its territories in Sulu Archipelago to Spain within late s Sulu Sultanate gave up Basilan to Spain in , while Sulu and Tawi-tawi were not given up by sultanate because the Sulu Sultanate only recognised partial Spanish sovereignty to Sulu and Tawi-tawi , Spanish settlers and soldiers brought the language to the region until Spain, Germany , and United Kingdom signed an agreement named the Madrid Protocol of that recognised Spanish rule of Sulu Archipelago.
From then on, constant Spanish military reinforcements as well as increased presence of Spanish religious and educational institutions have fostered the Spanish creole. The Merdicas also spelled Mardicas or Mardikas were Catholic natives of the islands of Ternate and Tidore of the Moluccas in the vicinity of the island of Papua, converted during the Portuguese occupation of the islands by Jesuit missionaries. The islands were later captured by the Spanish who vied for their control with the Dutch. In , the Spanish garrison in Ternate were forced to pull out to defend Manila against an impending invasion by the Chinese pirate Koxinga sacrificing the Moluccas to the Dutch in doing so.
A number of Merdicas volunteered to help, eventually being resettled in a sandbar near the mouth of the Maragondon river known as the Barra de Maragondon and Tanza, Cavite , Manila. The invasion did not occur as Koxinga fell ill and died. The Merdicas community eventually integrated into the local population. El viento no mas el que ta alborota, el viento y el pecho de Felisa que ta lleno de sampaguitas na fuera y lleno de suspiros na dentro This variety is considered to be virtually extinct.
Ansina ya ba numa? Entonces, no nos olvidemos de ellos. We can say what great sacrifices our heroes have done to achieve our independence. We should therefore not forget them. Is it like this? We should do things to let it be known that we appreciate the heroes; that we are prepared to make sacrifices for our people. Broadly speaking, the formal register is closer to Spanish, and the colloquial register to the local Austronesian languages.
The common or familiar register is used ordinarily when conversing with people of equal or lower status in society. It is also used more commonly in the family, with friends and acquaintances. Its use is of general acceptance and usage. The formal register is used especially when conversing with people of higher status in society. It is also used when conversing with elders especially in the family and with older relatives and those in authority. It is the form used in speeches, education, media, and writing. The formal register used in conversation is sometimes mixed with some degree of colloquial register.
The following examples show a contrast between the usage of formal words and common or familiar words in Chavacano:. Chavacano is written using the Latin script. As Chavacano has mostly been a spoken language than a written one, multiple ways of writing the different varieties of Chavacano exist.
Most published Chavacano texts utilize spelling systems nearly identical to Spanish, adjusting certain spellings of words to reflect how they are pronounced by native Chavacano speakers. Since the propagation of the usage of the Filipino language in education and the media as the national language, Filipino's orthography has affected how certain persons might spell Chavacano, especially since recent generations have grown unfamiliar with Spanish orthography; Most published works, and the general media, however more often retain Spanish-based spelling systems.
The kind of writing system used to write Chavacano may differ according to the writer of the text. Writing may be written using a Spanish-derived writing system, where all words including words of local origin are spelled adhering to basic Spanish orthographic rules; it may also be written "phonetically", similar to the modern orthography of Filipino; another writing style uses a mixture of the two, spelling words based on an etymological approach.
In principle, words of Spanish origin are to be spelled using Spanish rules while Chavacano words of local origin are spelled in the manner according to their origin. Thus, the letter k appear mostly in words of Austronesian origin or in loanwords from other Philippine languages words such as kame , kita , kanamon , kaninyo.
It is uncommon in modern written works to include the acute accent and the trema in writing except in linguistic or highly formalized texts. Some sounds are not represented in the Chavacano written language. These sounds are mostly in words of Philippine and foreign origin. Furthermore, the pronunciation of some words of Spanish origin have become distorted or Philippinized in modern Chavacano. Some vowels have become allophonized 'e' and 'o' becomes 'i' and 'u' in some words and some consonants have changed their pronunciation. These sounds are mainly found in words of Philippine origin and are only indicated in dictionaries i.
Chavacano is a language with the verb—subject—object sentence order. This is because it follows the Hiligaynon or Tagalog grammatical structures. However, the subject—verb—object order does exist in Chavacano but only for emphasis purposes see below. New generations have been slowly and vigorously using the S-V-O pattern mainly because of the influence of the English language. These recent practices have been most prevalent and evident in the mass media particularly among Chavacano newswriters who translate news leads from English or Tagalog to Chavacano where the "who" is emphasized more than the "what".
Chavacano generally follows the simple verb—subject—object or verb—object—subject sentence structure typical of Hiligaynon or Tagalog in declarative affirmative sentences:.
The subject always appears after the verb, and in cases where pronominal subjects such as personal pronouns are used in sentences, they will never occur before the verb:. This manner of negating the predicate always happens in the verb—subject—object or verb—object—subject sentence structure:. The negator jendeh can appear before the subject in a subject—verb—object structure to negate the subject rather than the predicate in the present, past, and future tenses:.
The negator nunca can appear before the subject in a subject—verb—object structure to strongly negate or denote impossibility the subject rather than the predicate in the future tense:. The negator no hay and nunca can also appear before the subject to negate the predicate in a subject—verb—object structure in the past and future tenses respectively. Using nunca before the subject to negate the predicate in a subject—verb—object structure denotes strong negation or impossibility for the subject to perform the action in the future:.
The Chavacano definite article el precedes a singular noun or a plural marker for a plural noun. The indefinite article un stays constant for gender as 'una' has almost completely disappeared in Chavacano, except for some phrases like "una vez". It also stays constant for number as for singular nouns. In Chavacano, it is quite common for el and un to appear together before a singular noun, the former to denote certainty and the latter to denote number:.
Nouns in Chavacano are not always preceded by articles. Without an article, a noun is a generic reference:. Proper names of persons are preceded by the definite article si or the phrase un tal functioning as an indefinite article would:. Unlike in Spanish, Chavacano nouns derived from Spanish do not follow gender rules in general. The Spanish article 'la' for feminine singular nouns does exist in Chavacano, though it occurs rarely and mostly in the formal medium of writing, such as poems and lyrics.
When accompanying a Spanish feminine noun, the 'la' as the article is more tolerated than acceptable. Among the few exceptions where the 'la' occurs is as a formal prefix when addressing the Blessed Virgin Mary, perhaps more as an emphasis of her importance in Christian devotion. But the real article is still the 'el', which makes this use of a "double article" quite unique.
Thus it is common to hear the Blessed Virgin addressed in Chavacano as 'el La Virgen Maria' the "L" of the 'la' capitalized to signify its permanent position within the noun compound.
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In general, though, when in doubt, the article 'el' is always safe to use. And just like Spanish, Chavacano nouns can have gender but only when referring to persons. However, they are always masculine in the sense Spanish context that they are generally preceded by the article 'el'. Places and things are almost always masculine.
The -o is dropped in masculine nouns and -a is added to make the noun feminine:. Not all nouns referring to persons can become feminine nouns. In Chavacano, some names of persons are masculine because of the preceding article 'el' in Spanish context but do not end in -o. Names of places and things can be either masculine or feminine, but they are considered masculine in the Spanish context because the article 'el' always precedes the noun:.
In Chavacano, plural nouns whether masculine or feminine in Spanish context are preceded by the retained singular masculine Spanish article 'el'. The Spanish articles 'los' and 'las' have almost disappeared. Maga comes from the native Hiligaynon 'maga' or the Tagalog 'mga'. It may be thought of as roughly equivalent to saying in English, "the many noun " instead of "the noun s", and in fact "the many noun s" is used more in Philippine English than elsewhere.
The articles 'los' or 'las' do exist sometimes before nouns that are pluralized in the Spanish manner, and their use is quite accepted:. In Chavacano, it is common for some nouns to become doubled when pluralized called Reduplication , a characteristic of the Malayo-Polynesian family of languages :. But note that in some cases, this "reduplication" signifies a difference in meaning.
For example, 'el maga bata' means 'the children' but 'el maga bata-bata' means one's followers or subordinates, as is a gang or mob. In general, the suffixes -s, -as, -os to pluralize nouns in Spanish have also almost disappeared in Chavacano.